Kimberley Gammage, left, leads a test subject during her research into exercise environments and older adults.Niagara has one of the oldest populations in Canada, and that fits the research of Kimberley Gammage just fine. The associate professor in Physical Education and Kinesiology is studying how exercise environments impact older adults.Gammage, along with Allan Adkin and Panagiota Klentrou, is studying how the social and physical environments of exercise affect balance outcomes, body image, and anxiety levels in older adults. The gym can be an intimidating place, but getting stronger isn’t always measured by how much you can lift, or how long you can ride a bike. The psychological and physical environments of exercise affect outcomes as well, Gammage said.With the study, Gammage’s team tests subjects aged 60 to 90 years old. It involves a 12-week period of exercise, which includes cardiovascular, strength, flexibility and balance training. Many outcomes are assessed, including psychological variables such as body image and confidence, as well as physical outcomes like strength and balance improvement.Gammage’s passion for the research stems from her days as a fitness instructor. Her research is used to help understand exercise motivation and patterns that will encourage exercise for life. This includes exercise as an older adult.Exercise helps older adults on multiple levels, she said.“There are huge benefits for older adults above the physical improvement, including independence, increased confidence, enhanced mobility and being ready for life’s challenges,” she said.Many participants stay long after testing as has finished and develop regular exercise routines. By identifying the physical and social factors that affect exercise for older adults, researchers can better identify why they stop exercising. It will also tell us more about how to motivate older adults to incorporate exercise in their daily routines.Undergraduate and graduate students volunteer their time to supervise and conduct testing.To find out more, or to volunteer, email [email protected]:• Physical Education and Kinesiology
The research, from traffic information company Inrix, found drivers spend an average of 32 hours a year stuck in jams during peak periods in the UK.The issue is worst in London, which was found to be the seventh worst city out of more than 1,000 analysed around the world. Manchester was the UK’s second worst, followed by Aberdeen, Birmingham and Edinburgh.Russia is the most congested country in Europe, followed by Turkey and the UK.Inrix chief economist Graham Cookson said: “Despite Brexit, 2016 saw the UK economy remaining stable, fuel prices staying low and employment growing to an 11-year high, all of which incentivises road travel and helped increase congestion.”The cost of this congestion is staggering, stripping the economy of billions, impacting businesses and costing consumers dearly.”To tackle this problem, we must consider bold options such as remote working, wider use of road user charging and investment in big data to create more effective and intelligent transportation systems.”AA president Edmund King advised changing working habits to tackle the issue: “Employers could help ease the situation by introducing flexible working hours or home-based employment and we also need to improve the efficiency of white van deliveries as light vans are the fastest area of traffic growth.”Businesses suffer the most from traffic in Cardiff, with daytime congestion in the Welsh capital occurring 15 per cent of the time, according to the research. Traffic jams in London are among the worst in cities around the worldCredit:PA Amazon Delivery Boxes delivered to doorstepCredit:Goss Images / Alamy Aberdeen eclipsed London for congestion at peak periods last year as the hardest city to get into or out of, with drivers stuck in gridlock 24% of the time, moving at an average speed of 5.5mph.Outside of London, the A1 southbound from College Gardens to Wallace Park in Belfast was the most congested road corridor in the UK.Recent figures from the Department for Transport (DfT) revealed there was a record 320.5 billion vehicle miles travelled in 2016, up 1.2 per cent on the previous year.Last autumn the Government announced it will invest an extra £1.3 billion in local roads and transport schemes to relieve congestion and deliver upgrades.A DfT spokesman said: “We are making the most extensive improvements to roads since the 1970s, investing a record £23 billion to keep our country moving and make journeys faster, better and more reliable for everyone.”Steve Gooding, director of motoring research charity the RAC Foundation, said: “Road congestion is a high price to pay for having a successful economy, and the risk is that gridlock starts to strangle growth.”That is why we don’t just need sustained investment, to add capacity and install better traffic management systems, we need intelligent investment.” The average driver will spend 32 hours a year in traffic jams, a report has found as online shopping is blamed for the rise in congestion.The UK was found to be the third worst country in Europe for traffic congestion, with the direct and direct costs of hold-ups reaching £31 billion last year, an average of £968 per driver.Online shopping has contributed to the rising levels, according to analysts, with figures showing the number of delivery vans on the roads has increased in the last five years.Ian Crowder from the AA said: “You can’t go through a townscape without coming across people delivering groceries or parcels on Amazon or whatever.”It’s almost a natural thing to do nowadays and I suppose it all kicked off with Ocado who pioneered online grocery shopping and that’s extended – you can buy almost anything online these days and how does that arrive? Well, it’s in a van and it’s emitting diesel as well which adds to concerns about diesel levels particularly in London.”There’s been a phenomenal growth in online shopping sales as well as of light commercial vehicles.” Want the best of The Telegraph direct to your email and WhatsApp? Sign up to our free twice-daily Front Page newsletter and new audio briefings.