Twitter Linkedin WhatsApp Facebook Email Advertisement A TAXI driver has been found guilty of sexually assaulting a teenage college student in Limerick in 2011 after she fell asleep in the front seat of the car. This Thursday, the jury returned a majority verdict of 11 to one convicting Bengal born, Abdul Mannan (39), of Rhebogue Meadows, Limerick, of sexually assaulting a 19-year-old first year Mary Immaculate College student after she left a city bar to get a taxi home on February 7, 2011.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Print The jury of nine men and three women heard evidence from the injured party that she had been out socialising with friends and left the city bar they had been in shortly after 11pm.Having consumed a number of drinks earlier in the night, the woman said that she left the venue as she “just wanted to go home”.“I got into the first taxi I saw and said to bring me home to ‘City Campus’”, said the girl who is 21 now as she referred to the student accomodation on Lord Edward Street.The woman said that she fell asleep in the front seat shortly after she got into the taxi and when she woke, the woman said that the man had two of his fingers in her vagina.Denying the charge, Mr Mannan, the court heard, turned pale and fainted momentarily, when the gardai arrived to his home a few hours after the alleged incident.Under arrest at Roxboro Road Garda Station, evidence was submitted that Mr Mannan said in interview that he picked up the student outside the city centre bar and he heard her say to go to Castletroy.Mr Mannan said that once in Castletroy, he woke the girl by asking her where to go from there. He alleges that the teenage student became irate and verbally abused him before pushing the side of his head and shouting “fuck you you fucking foreigner, you don’t know how to drive a taxi”.He further claimed, that the girl twice requested him to have sex with her after she took a condom from her handbag. He added that after refusing the girl, she then demanded; “if you can not make sex, you have to put your fingers in my vagina”, but again he said that he refused.However, the jury heard that Mr Mannan later said that he did put his fingers in the girl’s vagina but only did so out of fear as he claimed she said that there would “have problems in City Campus”. if he didn’t.In cross examination, the student, now in her third year, denied that she ever demanded sex from the taxi driver because he “took a wrong turn”. She said that she was shocked and very upset at what had happened and she made a complaint to gardai immediately.The fourth-year student denied that she gave Mr Mannan consent to touch her in that way.Michael Fitzgibbon, defence counsel for the accused man, said that his client was a man of “impeccable character and came before the court without any previous convictions, in this jurisdiction or any other”.The jury was shown CCTV footage where the student was identified getting into the taxi of the accused man at 11.10pm on February 7, 2011.In his defence, Mr Mannan, a father of two, took to the witness box and said that he has been living in Ireland with his wife for 12 years and was driving a taxi for two years. Mr Mannan said that he worked in manufacturing companies in the region.Mr Mannan said that the woman became angry and hit him in the head during the exchange and demanded that he put her finger in after he refused to have sex with her. He admitted that he did put his fingers in for “about 30 seconds but I removed it as I knew it was wrong. I was really really nervous, but she forced me to do it.”The court heard that Mr Mannan said that he took his taxi ID card from the dashboard as the girl asked for his name and said he would “have more problems at City Campus”.Regarding the accusations made by the injured party, Mr Mannan said “I think she is not a good girl, if she was a good girl she would not ask me to have sex with her”.John O’Sullivan, prosecution for the State, questioned the accused regarding his status as a taxi driver and the requirements to have his identification displayed on the dash board. It was further put to the Mr Mannan that he removed the ID because he “wanted to cover up your identity”.Mr Mannan claimed that he thought the girl was going to “throw out his ID” and that was why he removed it. He said that he wanted to go to the gardai at Roxboro but he said that “she kept on shouting to go to City Campus, City Campus”.“I said I would go home and go to the gardai the next day”, added Mr Mannan.The accused man further denied, when it was put to him by Mr O’Sullivan, that he “took advantage of this sleeping girl”.John O’Sullivan said that Mr Mannan’s version of events was “utter nonsense” and in addressing the jury druing closing speeches, Mr O’Sullivan added that the case was a matter of credibility and the evidence of the injured party was “entirely credible”. Michael Fitzgibbon, defence counsel, said that his client always denied the claims made by the woman adding that “anything that happened in the taxi, happened at the behest of the alleged injured party”.The jury retired to consider deliberations and in less than three hours, told Judge Carroll Moran that they had a majority verdict.There were emotional scenes as Mr Mannan was remanded in custody pending a sentencing hearing.The 21-year-old victim is expected to make a impact statement at the sentencing hearing.Above: Abdul Mannan NewsLocal NewsLimerick taxi driver found guilty of of sexually assaulting studentBy admin – February 14, 2013 1306 Previous articleUlster Bank League Weekend Previews 16/2/13Next articleMake performance art your valentine admin
Granit Xhaka set to make Arsenal return against Vitoria as Unai Emery picks away game for reintegration
Granit Xhaka hasn’t played for the club since the incident against Palace (Picture: Getty)Arsenal star Granit Xhaka is set to make his return to the first team on Thursday for the Gunners’ Europa League clash against Vitoria.The Switzerland international hasn’t played for the club since telling fans to ‘f**k off’ when he was booed following his substitution against Crystal Palace in October.The midfielder eventually apologised for the incident but he’s been completely left out of both Arsenal matchday squads since the incident.Unai Emery is yet to confirm whether Xhaka will be stripped of the captaincy but there are no such doubts over his future at the club and the Spaniard wants to reintegrate him into the first team.ADVERTISEMENT Advertisement Emery wants to reintegrate Xhaka (Picture: Getty)According to the Mirror, Emery believes Thursday’s clash against Vitoria in Portugal is the perfect opportunity to get Xhaka some minutes as the game will not be played at the Emirates.AdvertisementAdvertisementArsenal’s north London home has become a cauldron of vitoral in recent months and Emery does not want to subject Xhaka to any unnecessary attention as he makes his return.The Gunners can seal their qualification for the last-32 with a win in Portugal.Emery’s side have a 100% record in the group so far but they required two late goals from Nicolas Pepe on matchday 3 to beat a spirited Vitoria side.MORE: Pep Guardiola starts mind games with Jurgen Klopp ahead of Liverpool vs Man City Metro Sport ReporterMonday 4 Nov 2019 7:54 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link283Shares Comment Granit Xhaka set to make Arsenal return against Vitoria as Unai Emery picks away game for reintegration Advertisement
WEEK 15 NON-PPR RANKINGS: Quarterback | Running back | Wide receiver | Tight end | D/ST | KickerDeVante Parker concussion updateParker was concussed in Week 14, but he made it out to the practice field Wednesday in a no-contact jersey (as did Albert Wilson, who was also concussed last Sunday). Parker will still need to clear concussion protocol to play in Week 15 against the Giants. Parker will remain in concussion protocol through the end of the week, head coach Brian Flores told reporters.Parker’s a fantasy starter if he’s active Sunday, but if he’s not, Isaiah Ford (who had nine targets in Week 14) and Allen Hurns (who had eight) will battle for Miami’s top receiver spo t We’d give the slight edge to Hurns since he has the better NFL pedigree. If Wilson made it back but not Parker, Wilson would also be in play as a PPR option.MORE WEEK 15: Sleepers | Busts | Start ’em, sit ’emAdam Thielen injury newsThielen (hamstring) was back at Vikings practice in a limited capacity Wednesday, and he was reportedly “closer to game speed” on Thursday. That bodes well for his chances of playing Sunday in the late-afternoon time slot against the Chargers, although we’ve seen Thielen make it back to practice before eventually being ruled out with an apparent setback already this season.Hamstrings are tricky business, but it looks like Thielen should make it back on the field Sunday (although whether he plays a full allotment of snaps is anyone’s guess). If Thielen plays, you have to start him in fantasy against the Chargers. An activated Thielen knocks tight end Kyle Rudolph firmly out of fantasy starter territory.WEEK 15 PPR RANKINGS: Running back | Wide receiver | Tight endDJ Chark injury updateChark (foot) was called “week-to-week” a few days ago by the Jaguars, so his absence from Wednesday’s practice was no surprise. He’s not expected to practice Thursday, either. Jacksonville has no reason to push it with its prized young receiver, so unless Chark makes it back to the practice field this week, expect him to miss out on Sunday against the Raiders.Oakland is a great matchup for WRs, so if Chark plays, you can start him with confidence. His absence creates a void that can be filled by Dede Westbrook and Chris Conley, both of whom fit as WR3/FLEX plays for Week 15 if Chark is out. Keelan Cole is also in play for deep-league owners looking for a big-play threat.WEEK 15 DFS LINEUPS:FD Cash | FD GPP | DK Cash | DK GPP | Y! Cash | Y! GPPIs T.Y. Hilton playing in Week 15?Hilton (calf) hasn’t spoked confidently about his own chances of returning this season, and the Colts are still referring to him as “week-to-week” with only three weeks left in the regular season. Hilton already suffered one apparent setback to this injury, so unless there’s some practice activity from him, don’t expect a return. Surprisingly, though, Hilton is returning to practice Thursday.Parris Campbell (foot) has been ruled out for the season for Indianapolis, so Zach Pascal and Marcus Johnson look likely to close out the season as the Colts’ top two wideouts. The Saints are a sneaky good matchup for that pair Monday night, although both have occasionally thrown up duds in decent spots before. With each coming off a good Week 14, Pascal and to a lesser extent Johnson are in play as WR3/FLEX options if Hilton is out.MORE WEEK 15:Waiver pickups | FAAB planner | Stock watch | Snap counts | Fantasy playoff tipsWill Fuller V hamstring injury updateFuller (hamstring) was limited in Thursday’s practice after missing Week 14 despite being limited in practice all of last week. The Texans play a near must-win game against the Titans on Sunday at 1 p.m ET. Week 15 WR rankings are in flux as we wait on a number of big-name wideouts to either return to health or be ruled out. There are the new injuries from Week 14, namely DeVante Parker and DJ Chark, to worry about. There are also the usual culprits: Will Fuller, T.Y. Hilton, Adam Thielen and JuJu Smith-Schuster. All are talented enough to make an impact on the fantasy playoffs if they can be active in Week 15, but either way, start ’em, sit ’em decisions will not be easy this week.For injury updates on banged-up RBs Josh Jacobs, Jordan Howard, Derrick Henry and more, go here; for news on injured TEs Evan Engram, Jared Cook, Greg Olsen and more, click here; for the latest on Jameis Winston, go here. Follow us on Twitter for more news and updates @SN_Fantasy. It’s always tricky to trust hamstrings, even if Fuller is ruled active, but there’s no denying what his big-play ability could do for a fantasy lineup if he’s healthy. He’s at worst a boom-or-bust FLEX play if active. Kenny Stills would continue to get Fuller’s snaps if he remains out.Is JuJu Smith-Schuster playing Week 15?Smith-Schuster (knee) was a full participant in Wednesday’s practice but limited on Thursday for Pittsburgh, his first time on the practice field since being injured in Week 11. The Steelers host the Bills on Sunday Night Football in Week 15.Assuming JuJu plays, he’ll get a heavy dose of Tre’Davious White that leaves him floundering in WR3/FLEX territory with some serious risk. A Smith-Schuster return also makes it so you can’t really start Diontae Johnson or James Washington in what could be a messy passing game.
NALCHIK, Russia – Hundreds of black-clad, mostly elderly people gathered Sunday outside the prosecutors’ office in the southern Russian city of Nalchik, demanding the release of the bodies of relatives killed during a raid by alleged Islamic extremists. Many feared they would never see their relatives’ bodies. According to Russian law, terrorists’ bodies are not returned to their families and some in the crowd alleged that their relatives had been unfairly identified as participants in the militant raid. “Give back the bodies of our children so that we can bury them,” said a petition the crowd passed to prosecutors. The demand came two days after militants attacked police and government buildings in Nalchik, sparking fighting that killed at least 139 people, including 94 alleged attackers, according to official tallies. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week A delegation of three elderly men presented the petition to prosecutors. Deputy regional prosecutor Asker Masayev asked the crowd to return home and wait until today because investigators were still working to separate the bodies of the attackers from other victims, said Mukhamed Zhekamukhov, one of the three elderly men and a relative of the slain driver. At Nalchik’s main morgue, another crowd of hundreds of agitated relatives waited for victims to be identified or to collect their bodies for burial. Police and security officers stood by. Nalchik is the capital of the Kabardino-Balkariya region, which has been long rattled by spillover violence from nearby Chechnya, as well as local criminal elements. Earlier this year, Nalchik police twice launched assaults on alleged Islamic militants holed up in apartments. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
SANTA CLARA — There’s something Jimmy Garoppolo wants you to know.“This isn’t something I want to get used to,” the 49ers quarterback said Friday after hobbling to his locker on crutches. “I want to be out there with the guys battling and preparing for the week. We’ll get back there next year.”Smiling often and speaking mostly about his resolve, Garoppolo addressed reporters for the first time since sustaining a torn anterior cruciate ligament in his left leg on Sept. 23 in Kansas City. …
The top performer whiskies of South Africa both come from the James Sedgwick Distillery in Wellington, Western Cape.The picturesque James Sedgwick Distillery in Wellington produces a range of world-acclaimed whiskies. (Images: Three Ships Whisky)Bhekumuzi MdakaneThe whisky industry has been historically dominated by Scotland and Ireland, which of course produces whiskey, but other nations – of which South Africa is one – are giving the old countries a run for their money.South Africa brings its own blends and home grains to the industry, though the country is still maturing as a whisky maker. Yet its Three Ships five-year-old Premium Select was named the world’s best blended whisky of 2012 at the annual World Whiskies Awards, held by Whisky Magazine. This is the first time a South African product captured the title.And its first single-grain whisky, Bain’s Cape Mountain, which was launched in 2009, has to date won three gold awards at the International Wine and Spirits Competition.(Image: Green Girls in Africa)These top performers both come from the James Sedgwick Distillery in Wellington, Western Cape, which has been described as the only dedicated whisky distillery in all of Africa. Recent renovations and new equipment, including new copper stills and a highly advanced control room, have modernised the facility, although the fine taste of its products remains the same.The plant was named after the 19th century sea captain James Sedgwick, who arrived in South Africa in 1850 and became one of the pioneers of the region’s liquor industry. Its sixth master distiller, who has been at the helm since 1991, is Andy Watts.Bain’s is named after engineer Andrew Geddes Bain who built the scenic Bainskloof Pass in the 1850s, at the foot of which stands the distillery.Local whisky facts and figuresAccording to the Scotch Whisky Association, which is based in the UK, exports of the golden liquid to South Africa have been declining. In 2010, they stood at R1 951-billion (US$223-billion); in 2011, they dropped to R1 911-billion ($218-billion).The most recent figures have shown a 16.4% fall in imports to R633-million ($72-million) for the period January to July 2012, compared to R756-million ($86-million) for the same period last year.Sarah Truen from the consulting firm DNA Economics, in Pretoria, says: “Imported whisky appears to be faring less well. Measured in terms of absolute alcohol content, imports of whisky grew 7% in 2011, versus 27% growth in total spirits imports.”Despite the fall in import value, South Africa is a top 10 Scotch whisky importer, surpassing Canada and Australia. And the country is the biggest whisky importer on the continent, followed by Angola, Morocco, Nigeria and Egypt, the association’s figures show.The total VAT and excise contributions across the liquor industry are estimated to be R19-billion ($2.2-billion), which implies that 40% of the direct value added by the industry goes to the government. On the whole, the manufacturing and selling of liquor is estimated to have contributed R93-billion ($11-billion) to the economy in 2009/10, or 3.9% of the 2009 gross domestic product.The value of whisky has gone up 400% in the last four years; by comparison, the value of gold has risen 146% in the same period, so it’s easy to see the attraction of investment-grade Scotch. And experts predict that the value of the whisky auction market will increase four-fold over the next eight years, so now is the time to invest.Contributing to the economyLiquor producer and marketer Distell, whose portfolio includes Bain’s and Three Ships, contributed R37-billion ($4.3-billion) to the country’s economy, according to its 2012 annual report. The company said that the strongest growth in the spirits category came from whisky and cognac, with Three Ships posting double-digit volume growth.Distell has also undertaken the only significant black economic employment (BEE) transaction in the spirits market, giving 15% of its ordinary shares to BEE shareholders through a deal that includes a consortium of Distell employees, a corporate social investment trust and Women Investment Portfolio Holdings, or Wiphold.“With such quality credentials in our favour, and as South Africa’s largest local whisky producer, we believe we are well-positioned to capitalise on future growth in domestic whisky consumption,” read Distell’s annual report.A DNA Economics report produced in 2011 stated that “the value of strong brands is of particular importance in the whisky market”. Compared to other international markets, the report found, South Africa displayed a high consumption of premium and super premium whisky, with 87% of whisky sold falling into these two categories. This growth, said DNA Economics, was driven by the so-called “black diamonds” or black middle class.Other up-and-coming brandsBut Three Ships and Bain’s are not the only whiskies made in South Africa, and as new brands break into the market, expanding job opportunities and career choices add to the industry’s contribution to the country’s economy.Other local brands that are growing a strong following include Drayman’s Single Malt Whisky, the creation of brewer Moritz Kallmeyer, who has added whisky to his product range. Kallmeyer owns and runs Drayman’s Brewery in Pretoria. He produces Drayman’s single malt and solera whisky from a variety of top-quality imported Scotch and South African whiskies. The products are an artful mix of aged single malts and younger blends, which are then further matured in casks.Players on the South African whisky scene include Brandhouse, a joint venture between Diageo, Heineken and Namibia Breweries, and Pernod Ricard, which has the Chivas Regal Scotch Whisky and Jameson Irish Whiskey brands.Exceptional performanceWhile these are imports, South Africa’s own whisky brands are growing in value, with advertising and marketing helping to capitalise on the tipplers’ tastes. Marcel Swain, the brand manager of Three Ships and Bain’s, said: “More focus is being placed on the brand with a new through-the-line campaign to be launched in the new year – exciting times.”He added that the Three Ships brand was performing “exceptionally well” after collecting its international accolades, while Bain’s Cape Mountain Whisky had been listed in Whisky Magazine, the UK’s best-selling whisky publication.Whisky festivalAnd adding to the growing appreciation of the fiery amber liquid is the annual FNB Whisky Live Festival, which claims it is becoming the largest and liveliest whisky festival in the world. It attracts locals and foreigners alike. They include global brand ambassadors, master distillers and whisky experts from all over the world. Now in its 10th year, the festival has estimated its attendance figures at 18 000.Spirits writer and aficionado Dave Broom, for example, attended the New York Whisky Festival before coming to South Africa for the FNB event. Others who have made the trip include Karen Fullerton, the global brand ambassador of Glenmorangie; Dennis Malcolm, the master distiller at Scotland’s Glen Grant; and Martine Nouet, a whisky and food expert from France.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
1 July 2015The government has sold its 13.91% stake in Vodacom to the Public Investment Corporation (PIC), which acts on behalf of the Government Employees Pension Fund (GEPF).The cash from the sale will be used to finance the R23-billion allocation to Eskom, according to the National Treasury. “This gives expression to the commitment made in the 2015 budget and the 2014 Medium Term Budget Policy Statement that funding of state-owned companies would be in a deficit neutral manner,” the Treasury said this morning.The move comes after the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa) on Monday rejected Eskom’s request for a further 9.58% increase in electricity tariffs.“Last week, Parliament passed the Eskom Special Appropriation Bill to enable the appropriation and the Eskom Subordinated Loan Special Appropriation Amendment Bill for the conversion of the subordinated loan into equity,” the Treasury added.It did not disclose the deal value, but based on Vodacom’s market capitalisation on the JSE on 30 June, the stake is valued at R28.7-billion.The National Treasury and the Department of Telecommunications and Postal Services worked together on the transaction. It said that before the decision on the sale was taken, the government sounded out the market, with several organisations presenting proposals for raising the funding to be allocated to Eskom.“The government considered a wide range of options including the sale of listed shareholdings it holds directly, the disposal of listed stakes held indirectly through development finance institutions, the sale of government’s unlisted shareholdings in state-owned companies or their subsidiaries, the ring-fencing and sale of assets held by state-owned companies, and the sale of other assets, such as property, owned by the state.”The sale of the Vodacom stake was the most viable option to raise funds quickly to inject equity into Eskom. This was crucial to bolster the utility while still ensuring the government could deliver on its strategic objectives, said the Treasury.It added: “The PIC’s offer to [the] government was in line with pricing quoted by other institutions when taking into account the large size of the stake and also provided the added benefit of keeping the shares within the broader family of public sector-related institutions.”In addition to the allocation of R23-billion to Eskom, the government committed to converting to equity the R60-billion subordinated loan given to Eskom previously. It said this would further strengthen the utility’s balance sheet. Cost reductions by Eskom, and applying for electricity tariff adjustments would complement these moves.SAinfo reporter
But in some regions, the bias is against basementsJames Morgan suggests that Geoghegan not be deterred by Holladay’s dislike of the crawl space, adding that crawl spaces are the norm in his part of the country.“I think it’s a regional issue,” he writes. “Here in the Carolina Piedmont we have a similar prejudice against the kind of basement that seems to function well in the North. If your climate and terrain are anything like ours (we’re in Advanced Energy’s home territory) the unvented insulated crawl space with a small supply air vent from the main HVAC system has many advantages and is generally considered standard best practice in the industry.”Nor does Morgan understand why Holladay thinks basements and slabs are less susceptible to certain types of problems than crawl spaces. He adds, “As to why why good, responsible, intelligent builders continue to prefer crawl spaces in appropriate regional circumstances, how about a clean dry mechanical and electrical distribution and equipment space that is inspectable, upgradable, is relatively inexpensive to construct and suitable for almost all topographical conditions of the region?”Moreover, North Carolina building codes require daylight drainage for a full basement, which is “not achievable on 90% of the lots here.” While slab construction is possible, it also has its disadvantages.In the end, Morgan writes, Holladay should take some of the advice he offered in a recent blog: study buildings that successfully handle local conditions. Our expert’s opinionHere’s GBA technical director Peter Yost’s take:Crawl spaces generally get a bum rap because they are so often done so badly. One of my brothers just happened to call me last week regarding his crawl space in a relatively new home he purchased in Idaho (see Image #1, above).And part of the problem with crawl spaces is their history. Originally, the code referred to them as “basementless spaces,” as if they were for folks who could not afford a “real” basement.If your soils and geology make a full basement either too hard or too expensive to achieve, and your building design favors subfloor space for forced-air ducts and mechanical equipment, it’s hard to argue for slab-on-grade over a crawl. And achieving a safe, dry, unvented crawl space is just as logical and attainable as a safe, dry, full basement.One thing I really don’t understand is designing a new home on a vented crawl space insulated and air-sealed at the floor level versus an unvented crawl insulated and air sealed at the perimeter. If you are going to pay for the foundation space, either put the space to good use or move to a slab-on-grade foundation. I have found in my work that:The times that code-level crawl space vents actually provide any significant ventilation and active drying is a fraction of the year.Insulating and, particularly, air-sealing at the floor level of a crawl space is a very difficult proposition. It’s possible (see Image #2, below), but hard.Monitoring any crawl space (either through sensors or regular routine visual inspections) is always a good idea.In the case of the crawl space that was later air-sealed, radiant-floor hydronic heating also was installed in each floor framing bay (not visible in the photo). We monitored the temperature and relative humidity of the new crawl space for one full year, also taking quarterly moisture content readings of the mud sill and posts. While the new crawl space experienced seasonal high relative humidity spikes, they never translated into moisture content in crawl space framing above 17 percent. Michael Geoghegan is designing a house for a mixed, humid climate and he plans on using an insulated crawl space.Advanced Energy, a regional energy consulting firm, has published a report on crawl spaces which suggests a dehumidifier can be used as an alternative to providing code-required supply air to condition a crawl space. “I’m a little bit concerned about cold floors in the winter time with this method,” Geoghegan writes in a Q&A post at GreenBuildingAdvisor. “Does anyone have any experience here?”Detailing crawl spaces correctly isn’t simple. A recent Q&A Spotlight focused on methods for insulating a crawl space, and Geoghegan’s question — “What’s the best way of ventilating a sealed crawl space?” — raises overlapping concerns.In this Q&A Spotlight, the discussion quickly turns to a broader issue: Are crawl spaces a good idea in the first place? Although they are common in the southeastern part of the U.S., they are rarely used in the Northeast, where full basements are the norm and crawl spaces are an anomaly. Who’s right? Crawl spaces need an exchange of airA dehumidifier might be useful for lowering humidity levels in a crawl space temporarily, says GBA senior editor Martin Holladay, but there should be no need to for a dehumidifier to become a permanent crawl space fixture. Because dehumidifiers use a lot of energy, it would be better to remove the dehumidifier once the crawl space has dried out.Long-range, the question becomes how best to comply with a building code requirement that a sealed crawl space be conditioned. There are two code-approved approaches, Holladay says. Both approaches require the installation of a floor grille to connect the crawl space air with the conditioned home above the crawl space, and neither approach involves a dehumidifier. Builders can choose either:To install an exhaust fan in the rim joist and run it all the time, orTo install a forced-air supply register in the crawl space.But in the end, Holladay doesn’t like crawl spaces, and he thinks the idea of installing a dehumidifier in one is a “desperate, last-ditch effort.”Crawl spaces may have poor air quality without continuously running exhaust fans, he wrote in a 2011 blog on the topic, and radon levels may be 10 times what they’d be in a vented crawl space. “It’s important to emphasize that even a well-detailed crawl space represents a problematic foundation design,” Holladay wrote at the time.Because Geoghegan is still in the planning stages of a house, he adds, there is still time to “choose a foundation system that makes more sense than a crawl space.“As I said, don’t start out assuming that you need a crawl space dehumidifier,” he adds. “And concerning the recommendations of Advanced Energy, my only reaction is that it’s usually safer to follow the building code than it is to violate the building code. But if you can negotiate with your building inspector successfully, you may be able to follow Advanced Energy’s recommendations — assuming they make sense to you.” RELATED ARTICLES Putting local practices into the right contextUltimately, Holladay and Morgan find themselves agreeing on one point: local building practices should be evaluated on their merits.“I agree, and I’ve never suggested otherwise,” Morgan replies. “There are three common approaches to traditional local building practices. You can dismiss and disdain them as the habits of old fuddy-duddies who don’t know any better. You can adopt them uncritically because what was good enough for grandaddy is good enough for me. Or you can treat them with critical respect to see what you can learn from them in the light of current building science knowledge, material and skills availability and changing needs.“I’ve never advocated any but the third approach,” he continues. “In searching for the best building practices of our time and place we’re part of an ancient and continuing tradition, and if we’re enabled to see farther than those who came before us it’s it’s only because we stand on their shoulders.” Crawl space detailing that works in the regionDanny Kelly, a builder in Charlotte, North Carolina, has wrestled with these issues and has eventually settled on the exhaust-fan approach to ventilating increasingly tighter closed crawl spaces. Radon is one reason, and moisture control is another.“We assume all crawl air is bad air so best to exhaust it from the crawl rather than push it up into the house by pressurizing the crawl with a supply duct. It is very important that all penetrations are sealed,” he says. “Seal at mudsill and band joist, and [make sure that the] crawl door is weather-stripped and closes tightly. [You] need to be 100% sure that the incoming air is coming from the house and not from the exterior.”Kelly also is learning toward insulating at the floor level rather than the exterior foundation walls (what he would call a “closed crawl” rather than a “conditioned crawl”).“Cold floor complaints combined with increased hardwood floor issues is pushing us in this direction,” he says. “If you look at the Pinehurst study Advanced Energy did, there is actually an energy penalty in the winter on a conditioned crawl. Closed crawls outperform vented crawls in both energy savings as well as moisture control. There is very little difference in energy savings between a closed and a conditioned crawl.”Kelly uses a fan made from PVC rather than metal, which lowers the risk of condensation.Another detail that passes muster, at least in North Carolina, is the use of a dehumidifier in a crawl space. No matter what national model building codes might say, adds Stewart Akerman, the state’s residential building code specifically cites a dehumidifier as permissible. None of the approved methods, he adds, require a connection between the crawl space and the conditioned space above. Building an Unvented Crawl SpaceFive Ways to Deal with Crawl Space AirGBA Encyclopedia: Crawl SpacesAll About Basements From Advanced Energy: Closed Crawl Spaces From Building Science Corp.: Conditioned Crawlspace Construction, Performance, and Codes From Fine Homebuilding magazine: Sealing a Crawlspace
444 Days in the First Year Part 1The Phone CallMcCoy, Tabitha (2006). Former SGT Steve McCoy. Personal photo of Tabitha McCoy used with her permission.“Mama, what happened to my daddy?” My three-year-old son asks from the back seat.It was Easter weekend and we were an hour into our three-hour drive back to my hometown to spend the weekend with my family. I had just hung up the phone from yet another less than 5-minute phone conversation with my husband who six months prior had left for his second deployment to Iraq.Fighting back the tears of frustration from not being able to remember the last “real” conversation I had with my Soldier, I slapped on my “brave, everything is great face”, looked at both my son and daughter through the rear view mirror and said, “Nothing has happened to your daddy buddy, he just had to go work, but he said to tell you both that he loves you, and he will try to call us back this weekend.”Friday…no phone call, Saturday…no phone call, Easter Sunday…no phone callIt was beginning to feel like forever since I had heard my Soldiers voice and I was more than happy to be woken up before daylight to the sound of my phone ringing. I was immediately wide-awake, over come with relief and anticipating the sweet sound of him saying, “Good morning baby.” However, as I reached for my phone my excitement quickly turned to dread as I read the number on the caller ID. It was not an “unknown” Iraqi pay-phone number that my husband would sometimes use to call me from, nor was it his satellite phone number. No, this was a new number, one I had never seen before.I looked at my two babies who were still asleep in the bed beside me, and all of sudden I was reminded of the question my son asked me just a few days before, and with a shaky voice I said “hello.”Caregiver’s Advice to Professionals and Military FamiliesThe time shortly following the injury of a service member is stressful for everyone involved, and as both professional and civilian caregivers it is easy to place our focus solely upon the wounded service member. We must remember however, that the service member is only a part of an entire family system: and while the majority of the focus should be placed on the service member and their recovery, the family members have also in a sense, been wounded.The mental and physical health of the primary caregiver is such an important part in facilitating both recovery and health in the wounded service member, yet it is also something that can be easily overlooked; not only by the professionals who are being paid to take care of the service member but by the caregiver themselves.As professionals, education is key in understanding how to treat not just the wounded service member but the wounded family, and while the suggestions I make may seem simple or insignificant, I am drawing from my own personal experience; the brokenness I felt, the roller coaster of emotions I experienced, and how lonely it felt even though I was in a room full of people. As I remember the first few days and weeks following my Soldiers injuries, I am reminded that it’s the “little things” that truly mean the most.Be genuine: One of the first things that seemed to be the most noticeable was how genuine someone was being. I never wanted to have someone’s pity, however it was extremely obvious when someone was being nice because they had to be.Smile: I remember looking forward to the smiles of the doctors, nurses and volunteers in the waiting room at Brooke Army Medical Center. It made me feel safe, it always lifted my spirits, and above all it was typically contagious.Journaling: Offer this as an idea during conversation to the family member(s). This may sound silly but there has been research done supporting the idea of keeping a daily journal, especially during times of stress. I kept one while I was with my wounded Soldier and I remember it becoming one of the most valuable tools I had. A great stress reliever, and while it didn’t alleviate all stress; it did help, and it quickly became my release. I didn’t write much, and I didn’t even write everyday, actually I didn’t always actually write, sometimes I would just “add a calendar event” on the particular day. Either way, it helped and even now, 6 years later I will go back from time to time just to reread some of the thoughts.Eating and nutrition: This may seem like a “no brainer” for many, but nutrition plays such an important role in our stress and anxiety management. I remember there being days that I wouldn’t eat, especially in the beginning when my Soldier was first hurt. I didn’t intentionally skip meals I just had way too much on my mind to worry about food. Lack of eating and nutrition can lead to a host of other mental and physical issues that can further hinder care-taking abilities. It doesn’t take but a second to check in with the family, or to give a friendly reminder that they too need a “lunch break”.Access to resources: Make sure the family caregivers of the wounded service member have access or information regarding resources that may be helpful (i.e., Chaplin, therapist, counselors, gym, library, etc.). Remember that a family may not be from the area of where their wounded service member is receiving care. Some times just knowing where to go is reassuring enough for some, regardless of whether the information is ever utilized.Read the additional parts of the Military Caregiving mini series, 444 Days in the First Year, here:Part 2 – The Waiting RoomPart 3 – Unanswered QuestionsPart 4 – DecisionsPart 5 – Please Don’t Leave MePart 6 – Finale McCoy, Tabitha (2014). This is personal photo of Tabitha McCoy and family used with her permission.The caregiving mini-series, 444 Days in the First Year, was written by Tabitha McCoy. Tabitha is a contributor to the MFLN Military Caregiving team and is a former military caregiver to her husband, SGT Steve McCoy. In this mini-series, Tabitha shares her personal story of caregiving, loss, grieving, and transitioning, as well as insight and advice for both professionals and family caregivers as she recounts the 444 days following her husband’s death in June of 2008.Tabitha holds a Master of Science in Marriage & Family Therapy, is currently pursuing her doctoral degree in Marriage & Family Therapy with a concentration in Therapy with Military Families at Northcentral University, and is the Clinic Manager at FamilyWorks Therapy Clinic housed within Valdosta State University in Valdosta, Ga. Like what you read here? Check out the….2015 MFLN Military Caregiving Virtual Learning Event focusing on Reimagining Your Skills as a Helping Professional: Working with Military Family Caregivers. Be sure to visit their Virtual Learning Event webpage for more information and to view archived recordings of each event. By Tabitha McCoy, MSMFLN Family Development is featuring a 6 part blog series titled, 444 Days in the First Year, written by Tabitha McCoy. Tabitha is one of MFLN Family Development’s Anchored. podcast guest speakers. Tabitha originally wrote this blog series for the MFLN Military Caregiving team about her experience as a caregiver to her husband, Steve McCoy, Army SGT. Tabitha will be speaking more about her perspective of marriage from the stand point of a civilian married to an active duty military serviceman in Anchored. Episode 2| Married to the Military: Part 1. Be sure to check out her podcast being featured this summer on Anchored.Read the additional parts of the Military Caregiving mini series, 444 Days in the First Year, here:Part 2 – The Waiting RoomPart 3 – Unanswered QuestionsPart 4 – DecisionsPart 5 – Please Don’t Leave MePart 6 – Finale