6 Mexico Spain Ireland

first_img6MexicoSpainIreland More expensive than perceived: The AmericasThe Americas are prime examples of misconceptions with three out of four destinations actually featuring in the top ten most expensive.Brazil (Rio de Janeiro pictured, right), thought to be the ninth cheapest country, is actually the second most expensive in terms of real value and becomes the most expensive destination when the cost of flights and hotels is factored in. Mexico is considered the sixth cheapest when in reality is actually in position 15. The USA, thought to be the 14th cheapest is actually the seventh most expensive, and Canada perceived as the 14th most expensive, is actually the eighth most expensive.The flight effectWhen the cost of flights is factored in, Brazil, New Zealand and Mexico take the top three spots in the overall cost ranking, with the impact of the price of long haul flights best illustrated by New Zealand which jumps from 11th cheapest to second most expensive destination. Thailand is also a good example of a cheap destination when you get there (£622 in-resort costs for a week) but the cost of the flight (£853), more than doubles the total holiday cost.However, other countries benefit from the flight routes offered by budget carriers; Italy for instance goes from the ninth most expensive destination to become the 12th cheapest once the cost of flights is added to the total price. Likewise both Sweden and Denmark benefit from the average cost of flight. Sweden goes from being the third most expensive to the 14th cheapest and Denmark goes from being the fourth most expensive to the 13th cheapest. 18New ZealandDominican RepublicSwitzerland ReturnOne wayMulti-cityFromAdd nearby airports ToAdd nearby airportsDepart14/08/2019Return21/08/2019Cabin Class & Travellers1 adult, EconomyDirect flights onlySearch flights Map 1IndiaMoroccoPoland How the UK performsThe study also reveals that a holiday in the UK (Cornwall, pictured) is less expensive than many perceive but still more expensive than many European neighbours, including Spain and Portugal.Skyscanner’s spokesperson Sam Poullain commented: “This study highlights the huge disparity between the perception and the reality of holiday costs. It is essential that travellers should consider the proportion of the total cost that the flight makes up before deciding upon a destination.“With low cost flights available across the UK, and the strength of the pound against the Euro, European destinations such as Germany, are our tip for the best value resort this year.”Tables are in order of price where one is the cheapest and 30 is the most expensive: 17CanadaGreeceIceland 4MoroccoPortugalSpain 12South AfricaCyprusItaly 2ThailandThailandGermany 19GermanyFranceRussia How perceptions were calculatedRespondents were asked to rate the countries according to costs within the country, not including the cost of flights. Respondents were given the options of very cheap/cheap/neither expensive or cheap/expensive/very expensive and a score allocated for each response type.How costs were calculatedActual costs were calculated using the average in resort costs per day based on a cup of coffee, a bottle of beer, a three course meal including a half bottle of wine (per person), and one night’s accommodation. Prices used were according to the Post Office Holiday Cost Barometer Reports 2012* and Hotels.com 2011 Price Index.The flight prices used were the cheapest direct flight available with Skyscanner.net for travel on 1 July 2012, and accurate as at 18 April 2012 (the cheapest indirect flights were used for Australia and New Zealand which do not have direct flights available).where food and drinks prices were not available the relevant tourist board provided average costs for India, Poland, Denmark and Japan, while costs were taken from Wikitravel.com and Mytravelcost.com for Russia, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany, Iceland, Ireland and Morocco. 22IrelandItalySouth Africa 10PortugalGermanyGreece RelatedSkyscanner Real Value Resorts 2011Skyscanner Real Value Resorts 2011Real Value Resorts: Perception Vs RealityReal Value Resorts: Perception Vs RealityCheap Trip? Don’t overlook the Eurozone says SkyscannerSkyscanner’s top bargain Eurozone destinations 15CyprusMexicoCyprus 9BrazilUKEgypt RankPerceived Country Cost RankingActual Country Cost Ranking (one day cost)Actual Country Cost Ranking Incl. Flights (one week cost) 30SwitzerlandSwitzerlandBrazil 16RussiaSouth AfricaIndia 7CroatiaEgyptMorocco 8Dominican RepublicIrelandFrance 29SwedenBrazilNew Zealand 27JapanDenmarkAustralia 21ItalyUAEThailand 20AustraliaCroatiaUAE 5EgyptIndiaUK 24UKUSACanada 25DubaiAustraliaUSA 26IcelandRussiaDominican Republic A study by Europe’s leading travel search site Skyscanner has shown there is a huge misconception between the perceived cost of holiday destinations and the actual costs.The annual study of 30 popular holiday destinations revealed that India is perceived to be the cheapest country, however in reality the country is only the fifth cheapest, proving more expensive than many popular destinations including Portugal and Poland.While the study revealed the ever popular North African destination of Morocco to be the cheapest country, in reality once the cost of flights are factored in a very different story is revealed; Morocco slips to seventh position, while Poland (Poznan, pictured) takes the coveted top spot, closely followed by Germany, which is the surprise bargain destination of the year.Cheaper than perceived: EurozoneWith sterling reaching a four year high against the Euro, many popular destinations across the continent now offer much better value than perceived. Germany was perceived as the 12th most expensive of the 30; however the study shows that it is actually the 10th cheapest and becomes the second cheapest total cost inclusive of flights.Spain, a popular destination for British holidaymakers for many years was thought to be the 18th most expensive when in reality its true value saw it become the sixth cheapest. The cost of a holiday in Ireland was also overestimated – believed to be one of the most expensive destinations (position 22) when in fact the Emerald Isle is the eighth cheapest. 28DenmarkSwedenMexico 14USAJapanSweden 3PolandPolandPortugal 13SpainIcelandDenmark 23FranceCanadaJapan 11GreeceNew ZealandCroatialast_img read more

Researchers develop new method to diagnose broad range of cancers using malaria

first_imgAug 16 2018In a spectacular new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered a method of diagnosing a broad range of cancers at their early stages by utilizing a particular malaria protein, which sticks to cancer cells in blood samples. The researchers hope that this method can be used in cancer screenings in the near future.Each year, cancer kills approximately nine million people worldwide, and early diagnosis is crucial to efficient treatment and survival. Now, researchers from the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen have come up with a new method of diagnosing cancer in its early stages in humans by way of a malaria protein – VAR2CSA – which sticks to cancer cells. All the scientists need to determine whether or not a person has cancer is a blood sample.”We have developed a method where we take a blood sample and with great sensitivity and specificity, we’re able to retrieve the individual cancer cells from the blood. We catch the cancer cells in greater numbers than existing methods, which offers the opportunity to detect cancer earlier and thus improve outcome. You can use this method to diagnose broadly, as it’s not dependent on cancer type. We have already detected various types of cancer cells in blood samples. And if there is a cancer cell in your blood, you have a tumor somewhere in your body,” says Professor Ali Salanti from the Department of Immunology and Microbiology and joint author of the study, which has just been published in the scientific journal, Nature Communications.Today, there are several ways of detecting cancer cells in blood. Most of them are based on a particular marker, which is found on the surface of tumor cells. However, not all tumor cells display this marker, which renders these methods unable to detect tumor cells spread to other organs such liver, lung and bones, as opposed to the method based on the malaria protein.A few years ago, Ali Salanti and his fellow researchers discovered a new method of treating cancer with the protein VAR2CSA, which is produced by malaria parasites. And these discoveries have formed the basis of the research group’s new method of diagnosis. Among other things, they have shown that the malaria protein sticks to a specific sugar molecule, which is found in more than 95 percent of all types of cancer cells. In other words, this new method of diagnosis can be used to detect practically all types of cancer.Circulating tumor cellsA cancerous tumor consists of several different cancer cells, some of which spread by wandering through the tissue and into the blood. These cancer cells in the blood are called circulating tumor cells, and they can develop into metastases, which cause up to 90 percent of all cancer-related deaths. If cancer originating in the lungs spreads to the brain, it is called brain metastasis.Related StoriesSugary drinks linked to cancer finds studyTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerLiving with advanced breast cancerIt is the circulating tumor cells that the researchers are able to retrieve from a blood sample by using the malaria protein. During the development of this new method, the researchers took ten cancer cells and added them to five milliliters of blood, and subsequently, they were able to retrieve nine out of ten cancer cells from the blood sample.”We count the number of cancer cells and based on that we’re able to make a prognosis. You can, for example, decide to change a given treatment if the number of circulating tumor cells does not change during the treatment the patient is currently undergoing. This method also enables us to retrieve live cancer cells, which we can then grow and use for testing treatments in order to determine which type of treatment the patient responds to,” says Postdoc Mette Ørskov Agerbæk, Department of Immunology and Microbiology and joint author of the study.Future screening programThe researchers have already come a long way in following up on their results in terms of a large clinical study where many more patients with cancer of the pancreas have been tested using this method. “We found strikingly high numbers of circulating tumor cells in every single patient with pancreatic cancer, but none in the control group,” says Professor Christopher Heeschen, School of Medical Sciences, UNSW, Sydney, Australia, and joint author of the study.The researchers envision being able to use the method to screen people at high risk of developing cancer in the future. However, they also expect that this method can be used as a biomarker indicating whether a patient with mostly vague symptoms indeed has cancer or not. This will enable doctors to determine the stage the disease is at.”Today, it’s difficult to determine which stage cancer is at. Our method has enabled us to detect cancer at stages one, two, three and four. Based on the number of circulating tumor cells we find in someone’s blood, we’ll be able to determine whether it’s a relatively aggressive cancer or not so then to adjust the treatment accordingly,” explains Professor Ali Salanti who adds that a much larger clinical study is needed before firm correlations to tumor staging can be made. Source:https://healthsciences.ku.dk/news/2018/08/scientists-discover-new-method-of-diagnosing-cancer-with-malaria-protein/last_img read more